これであなたも寿司通!?寿司の歴史と地域による特色 Become a Sushi Expert! Sushi History And Local Characteristics | SUSHI TIMES

これであなたも寿司通!?寿司の歴史と地域による特色 Become a Sushi Expert! Sushi History And Local Characteristics

日本の食文化の代表である寿司の歴史や地域による味の違いなどをご紹介します。
Here is the history of sushi, one of the representative foods of Japan, and the difference in tastes between regions.

寿司の歴史 History of Sushi

寿司とは、米飯と主に魚介類を組み合わせた日本料理です。寿司といえば「握り寿司」を想像する人がほとんどですが、大別すると、「握り寿司」のように酢飯と生鮮魚介を用いた比較的近年登場した「早寿司(はやずし)」と、魚介類を米飯と塩で乳酸発酵させた「なれ寿司(なれずし)」に区分されます。では、寿司の歴史を追っていきましょう。

Sushi is a traditional Japanese food that mainly uses rice and seafood. We understand that nigiri is commonly brought to mind when we say sushi, but there are further classifications beyond the nigiri style of sushi. Sushi can be broken down into two types of sushi: hayazushi, which is a recent style of sushi with vinegared rice and fresh seafood, and narezushi, a formal style of sushi made by fermenting seafood with rice and salt. Let’s track down the history of sushi.

寿司のルーツ The Roots of Sushi

紀元前4世紀頃、東南アジアでは、米や麦などの穀物を炊き上げ、魚などを詰めて乳酸菌の力で乳酸発酵させることにより長期保存していました。それが奈良時代(710年~794年)の頃に日本に伝わったのが、寿司のルーツと言われています。

Around the 4th century BC, fish and other food were fermented in steamed rice and barley as a method of long-term preservation in southeast Asia. This method was transferred to Japan in the Nara era (710 to 794), and was the beginning of sushi.


※写真はイメージです。
*The photo is for illustrative purposes.

寿司の原型の登場 The Prototype of Sushi

日本の寿司の原型は平安時代(794年~1185年)に登場します。「なれ寿司」と呼ばれ、アユやフナなどの具材を数ヶ月から1年、米などの穀物に漬けて乳酸発酵させた保存食です。発酵による酸っぱさと凝縮された旨みが特徴で、魚だけを食べていました。
The prototype of sushi was invented in the Heian era (794 to 1185). It was called narezushi, a preservative food made by fermenting seafood, like trout and gibel, in rice for a few months to a year. It had a strong sourness from the fermentation that condensed the fish’s flavor, and only the fish was consumed.

握り寿司の登場 Establishment of the Nigiri Style of Sushi

室町時代(1336年~1573年)になると短期間の熟成で米と魚の両方を食べるようにもなりました。その後、酢の普及に伴い「なれ寿司」とは対照的に、発酵させずに酢の酸味で食べる寿司「早寿司」が誕生。酢飯と具を重ね、型に入れて押した寿司「押し寿司」や、江戸で考案された酢飯にワサビを塗り魚介類をのせて握る「握り寿司(江戸前寿司)」がそうです。関西では「押し寿司」、江戸では「握り寿司」が主流でした。 現在は、全国的に「握り寿司」が主流になり、各地の「押し寿司」や「なれ寿司」も全国に普及、もしくは郷土料理として作り続けられています。寿司は発展の過程で「巻き寿司」や「ちらし寿司」などバリエーション豊かに、そして、地域の名産を使った寿司もたくさん誕生しました。次は、地域ごとの特徴を見ていきましょう。
By the time of the Muromachi era (1336 to 1573), the fermentation period was shortened and both the rice and fish were consumed. Shortly after the Muromachi era, hayazushi, a style of sushi without fermentation, was established thanks to the spread of vinegar. Oshizushi, a type of sushi in which rice and fish are pressed into a box, and nigirizushi (Edomaezushi, in which seafood is placed on top of vinegared rice with wasabi paste in the middle), invented in Edo, are both types of hayazushi. Oshizushi was more common in Kansai (west), and nigiri in Edo (east). In recent days, nigirizushi has been popularized nationwide, and other types of sushi like oshizushi and narezushi continue to be consumed as local cuisine around the country. There are various types of sushi which have been invented in the process of development, like makizushi and chirashizushi. Many sushi with various local specialty factors were also created.

地域ごとの特色

ここでは主に、地域ごとの酢飯の傾向や、その地域ならではの寿司をご紹介します。
Here, we will introduce the different rice flavors used for sushi, and other local types of sushi.

北海道の寿司 Hokkaido Sushi

砂糖をほとんど使わない辛めの酢飯が特徴。鮭・イクラ・カニなど北海道ならではの新鮮な具材を楽しめます。また、ご飯と魚・野菜・麹(こうじ)を混ぜて乳酸発酵させる「飯寿司(いずし)」が名物。近年では根室でご当地寿司として「根室さんまロール寿司」と呼ばれる巻き寿司が話題です。
A main feature of Hokkaido-style sushi is a salty vinegared rice with almost no added sugar. One of the strong points of Hokkaido is the availability of a range of fresh seafood like salmon, salmon roe, and crab that can be enjoyed. Izushi is also a local specialty of Hokkaido. This is a fermented product made of rice, fish, vegetables and koji (a type of mold commonly used in sake fermentation). Recently, Nemuro sanma roll sushi, a local sushi of the Nemuro region made with saury, is becoming popular.

東北・北陸地方の寿司 Tohoku and Hokuriku Sushi

米飯を発酵させた、酸味の強い酢飯を使います。具材は、東北では主に海と山の幸、北陸では山と川の幸など。このエリアには「なれ寿司」と呼ばれる発酵させる寿司が名物として多く残っています。東北地方の「飯寿司」、秋田の「ハタハタ寿司」、石川・富山のかぶらとブリを使った「かぶら寿司」などが有名。その他、発酵させない寿司では、石川の「柿の葉寿司」や富山の「ますの寿司」が有名です。
The rice used for these regions’ sushi is fermented, and has a strong, sour taste. The common ingredients are seafood and vegetables for Tohoku, and river seafood and vegetables for Hokuriku. In these areas, the sushi culture of narezushi still remains. There are famous types like izushi from the Tohoku region, hatahatazushi from Akita, and kaburazushi from Ishikawa and Toyama, which uses turnips and yellowtail. Additionally, there are famous types of sushi that are not fermented, like kakinohasushi from Ishikawa and masunozushi from Toyama.

※北陸地方はMAP 4.中部の一部
*The Hokuriku region is a part of the midsection on MAP 4.

関東地方の寿司 Kanto Sushi

砂糖を使った適度な甘みの酢飯を使います。東京はほとんど酢のみの酸味の強い酢飯。栃木・茨城・千葉は甘め。主な具材は、山・川・海の幸。 東京は江戸時代から「握り寿司」が主流。千葉は「巻き寿司」、関東地方に近い長野では戦国時代から伝わる押し寿司「笹寿司」などが名物。
The Kanto region uses a moderately sweet vinegared rice using sugar. The main part of Tokyo favors sour vinegared rice with less sugar, and Tochigi, Ibaraki, and Chiba prefer sweet rice. Foods from the mountains, rivers, and ocean are used as the main ingredients. In Tokyo, nigirizushi has been mainstream since the Edo era. Makizushi (rolled sushi) from Chiba, and sasazushi from Nagano (close to the Kanto region), invented in the Sengoku era, are also famous.


巻寿司
Makizushi

東海・近畿・中国地方の寿司 Tokai, Kinki, and Chugoku Sushi

酢と同量の砂糖で味付けをした甘めの酢飯。近畿地方は主に「押し寿司」をメインに寿司文化が発展したため、寿司というと「押し寿司」を指すことも多いです。東海・近畿地方は山と海の幸、中国地方は山の幸を具材に使っています。大阪の「バッテラ」、京都の「鯖の棒寿司」、岡山の「ばら寿司」など。発酵させる滋賀の「鮒寿司」なども有名。
These regions use sweet vinegared rice with as much sugar as there is vinegar. The sushi culture of Kinki developed mainly with oshizushi, so some areas in Kinki think immediately of oshizushi when talking about sushi instead of the nigiri style. The Tokai and Kinki regions use vegetables and seafood, and the Chugoku region mainly uses vegetables. Batterasushi from Osaka, saba no bozushi from Kyoto and barazushi from Okayama are famous. Funazushi, a fermented sushi from Shiga, is also well-known.


バッテラ
Battera

四国地方の寿司 Shikoku Sushi

酢と、酢と同量の砂糖及び魚のだし・柚子の果汁で風味付けをした甘めの酢飯が特徴。主な具材は、山の幸。主に山菜を使う高知の「田舎寿司(いなかずし)」など。
Their sweet vinegared rice made with vinegar and an equal amount of sugar or fish broth and yuzu citrus juice is what makes this sushi characteristic of the area. Most of the ingredients are actually harvested from the mountains. Kouchi’s inakazushi especially uses mountain vegetables.

九州地方の寿司 Kyushu Sushi

酢と、酢と同量以上の砂糖で味付けした、特に甘めの酢飯が特徴。主な具材は、山と海の幸。福岡の「柿の葉寿司」、長崎の「大村寿司」など。
This region has especially sweet vinegared rice with a larger amount of added sugar. The main ingredients are vegetables and seafood. Kakinohazushi from Fukuoka and omurazushi from Nagasaki are popular.


柿の葉鮨
Kakinohazushi

沖縄・八丈島の寿司 Hachijojima Island Sushi

ほとんど酢のみで味付けした辛めの酢飯が特徴。八丈島ではからしをつけます。主な具材は海の幸。名物寿司は、カジキ、サワラをつかった沖縄の「大東寿司」、タイやマグロ、カンパチなどを使った八丈島の「島寿司」など。
Hachijojima Island has salty vinegared rice without added sugar, and mustard is used instead of wasabi. The main ingredient is seafood. Their famous sushi include daitozushi, which uses marlin and mackerel, and shimazushi, with snapper, tuna, and greater amberjack.

※八丈島はMAP 3.関東の離島
*Hachijojima Island is an isolated island of the Kanto region on MAP 3.

島寿司 Shimazushi

寿司の歴史や、地域の特色を知って、さらに寿司を美味しく楽しみましょう!
Understanding the history and characteristics will make your sushi experience even more enjoyable!

※本記事の情報は執筆時または公開時のものであり、最新の情報とは異なる可能性がありますのでご注意ください。
*Please note that the information in this article is from the time of writing or publication and may differ from the latest information.

出典:WOW JAPAN